Monday, April 9, 2012

Grade 9 IGCSE

Research on the following:

1. Define photosynthesis
2. Explain the function of chlorophyll.
3. State the word equation for the production of simple sugars and oxygen.
4. State the balanced equation for photosynthesis in symbols.
5. Investigate the necessity for chlorophyll, light and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, using appropriate controls.
6. Describe the intake of carbon dioxide and water by plants.
7. Investigate and state the effect of varying light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis.
8. Identify and label the cuticle, cellular and tissue structure of a dicotyledonous leaf, as seen in cross-section under the light microscope and describe the significance of the features of a leaf in terms of functions.
9. Describe the importance of:
• nitrate ions for protein synthesis,
• magnesium ions for chlorophyll synthesis.
10. Explain the effects of nitrate ion and magnesium ion deficiency on plant growth.
11. Describe the uses, and the dangers of overuse, of nitrogen-containing fertilizers.

Monday, March 26, 2012

Grade 9 IGCSE

ATTENTION: Research time for Grade 9 IGCSE will be used responsibly for the purpose of reviewing for the UNAS material. Any student not following instructions would be dealt accordingly.

NOTE : You may ask the teacher for any clarification about the previous lessons.

Grade 10 IGCSE

Research on the following:
1. Identify and describe the structure of a plant cell (palisade cell) and an animal cell (liver cell), as seen under a light microscope.
2. List and describe the characteristics of living organisms.
3. Describe the differences in structure between typical animal and plant cells and relate the structures seen under the light microscope in the plant cell and in the animal cell to their functions.
4. Relate the structure of the following to their functions
• red blood cells – transport,
• root hair cells – absorption.
5. Describe the importance of diffusion of gases and solutes and of water as a solvent.
6. Describe the importance of osmosis in the uptake of water by plants, and its effects on plant and animal tissues.
7. Describe and explain the importance of a water potential gradient in the uptake of
water by plants.
8. Investigate and describe the effect of changes in temperature and pH on enzyme activity.
9. Describe the structure of large molecules made from smaller basic units in nutrients.
10. Describe tests for:
• starch (iodine solution),
• reducing sugars (Benedict’s solution),
• protein (biuret test),
• fats (ethanol).
11. Describe the use of microorganisms in the manufacture of yoghurt.
12. Describe the deficiency symptoms for:
• vitamins (C and D only),
• mineral salts (calcium and iron only.)

Monday, February 27, 2012


1. Microscope usage
- research time will be used to have a practice.

2. Skeletal system
- Student must be able to identify different bones and its kind.
- Research using books or the internet to find it.

3. Working lung model
- you can check this or

Monday, February 20, 2012


Research on the following:

1. What is a limiting factor? Explain.
2. Enumerate and explain the different limiting factors in the environment.
3. Pinpoint the influences of the different physical factors on living things through specific examples.
4. Tolerance of an organism.
5. Explain how soil controls the distribution of plant and animals in Indonesia.
6. What is Topography and explain how it affects the distribution of plants and animals to different places?
7. Explain how humans disrupt the balance ecological balance.
8. Provide solutions to the different ecological problems you will answer in no. 7.
9. Research on the pollutants present in the Ocean.
10. What is Erosion and its effect to the habitat?

Thursday, February 16, 2012


Research on the following:
1. How is DNA organized inside the cell?
2. What are the basic units of DNA and show a DIAGRAM.
3. What is the rule in base pairing for the nitrogen-containing bases of DNA?
4. Structure of a GENE.
5. What is RNA?
6. What is genetic engineering? Usage? Issues against it? and its impact to Society?
7. Research on the life and works of Charles Darwin.
8. Research about the Galapagos Islands, its animals and plants.
9. Research about protein synthesis.
10. How is Hemophilia inherited?

Monday, February 6, 2012


Research on the following:
1. Define inheritance
2. Describe the inheritance of sex in humans
3. Define haploid nucleus and diploid nucleus
4. State that gametes are the result of meiosis.
5. Define and explain the terms:
A. genotype
B. phenotype
C. homozygous
D. heterozygous
E. chromosome
F. Allele
G. gene
6. Monhybrid cross and dihybrid cross
7. State that continuous variation is influenced by genes and
environment, resulting in a range of phenotypes between two
8. State that discontinuous variation
9. Define and explain mutation.
10. Outline the effects of ionising radiation on the rate of mutation.
11. Describe and explain variation
12. Describe the role of artificial selection in the production of varieties of
animals and plants with increased economic importance.
13. Define and explain natural selection.
14. Describe the development of strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria as
an example of natural selection.
15. Explain the importance of natural selection as a possible mechanism
for evolution.

Wednesday, January 25, 2012


Research on the following:

1. Compare Mitosis and Meiosis completely with diagram.
2. Research about the structure of a gene.
3. How does DNA gets replicated?
4. List and explain hereditary diseases. As many as you can find.
5. What is co-dominance and incomplete dominance?

Tuesday, January 24, 2012


1. Discuss the effects of the combustion of fossil fuels and the cutting down of forests
on the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.
2. List the undesirable effects of deforestation (to include extinction, loss of soil,
flooding, carbon dioxide build up).
3. Describe the undesirable effects of pollution to include:
• water pollution by sewage and chemical waste,
• air pollution by greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) contributing
to global warming.
4. Describe the undesirable effects of overuse of fertilisers (to include eutrophication
of lakes and rivers).
5. Discuss the causes and effects on the environment of acid rain, and the measures that might
be taken to reduce its incidence.
6. Explain how increases in greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) are
thought to cause global warming.
7. Describe the need for conservation of:
• species and their habitats,
• natural resources (limited to water and non-renewable materials including
fossil fuels).
8. Research on the expedition of the Pacific floor and discovery on its ecosystem.
9. Define and explain the limiting factor in an environment.
10. Compare overcrowding and under crowding through advantages and
11. Give some ways by which organisms adjust to varying temperatures. Support your
answer with at least five examples.
12. How is population density increased or decreased?
13. Explain how soil controls the distribution of plants and animals in Indonesia.
14. How does tolerance of an organism to any factor in the environment limit its distribution?
15. Why is light important to all organisms?
16. Explain how topography affects animal or plant distribution to separate places.
17. Explain how humans disrupt the ecological balance.
18. Provide solutions to the different ecological problems.
19. What is an ecological balance? Discuss the roles of humans in its maintenance.
20. Define pollution. What are the types of pollution?
21. Research about Styrofoam.
22. How does Oil spills affect the ecosystem?
23. How is noise considered as pollution?
24. Why is there a need for conservation?

Monday, January 16, 2012


1. Define homeostasis
2. Identify and discuss the diagram of the skin: hairs, sweat glands, temperature receptors, blood vessels and fatty tissue.
3. Describe the maintenance of a constant body temperature in humans in terms
a. of insulation and the role of temperature receptors in the skin
b. sweating, shivering,vasodilation and vasoconstriction of arterioles supplying skin-surface capillaries
c. the coordinating role of the brain.
4. Explain the concept of control by negative feedback.
5. Describe the control of the glucose content of the blood by the liver, and by insulin and glucagon from the pancreas.



1. Explain through an example how the two general sets of factors, heredity and environment determine characteristics of an organism.

2. Gregor Mendel's life and works.

3. Why did Mendel make a good choice with his peas?

4. What do the terms dominant and recessive mean?

5. What is the law of segregation?

6. What is a sex linked trait?

7. What is a sex influenced trait?

8. what is a sex limited trait?

9. What is a non-mendelian inheritance?

10. What causes mutation?

11. Who is Thomas Hunt Morgan?

12. How did Morgan's discovery differ from Mendel's?

13. How is blood type inherited?

14. Special cases of heredity.

15. Hybridization.

16. Selection and Inbreeding.

17. Genetic improvements on humans.